The department of Reproductive Biology is involved in both basic and clinical aspects of human reproduction. In the basic component, this department is concerned with mechanisms of spermatogenesis, oogenesis, fertilization, embryo development, implantation, and conception as well as factors involved in infertility, particularly oxidative stress. The laboratory and clinical aspects of the department include Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) such as sperm processing, oocyte/embryo micromanipulation, conventional In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), laser hatching, embryo culture, embryo freeze/thaw, etc. The academic staffs of this department are reproductive biologists, embryologists, gynecologists, urologists, clinical biochemists, geneticists, anatomists, histologists, and immunologists. The Department of Reproductive Biology provides a Ph.D. course in Reproductive Biology as well as short- and long-term training in ART. This department offers the following theoretical and practical courses: anatomy, andrology, stem cells, histology, immunology, genetic, advanced laboratory techniques, pathology, histology and development of the reproductive system, embryology, principles and techniques of freezing/thawing in reproductive biology, IVF/ICSI in laboratory animals, early embryonic development and implantation process, quality management in ART labs, Reproductive endocrinology, cellular and molecular biology, and ART.